Introduction

  • An extremely common procedure, knee arthroscopy is a diagnostic technique used to identify problems
  • It is a most noteworthy surgical procedure involving only a minor incision and the insertion of a tiny camera
  • Most often irreversible pain to the knee requires arthroscopy to locate the injury
  • Above all, due to shorter recovery times, the procedure has gained a lot of popularity

Knee Anatomy

  • As the largest joint in the body, the knee can be complex
  • Attachments involved:
    • The lower end of the femur or the thigh bone
    • Shinbone or upper end of the tibia
    • Kneecap or patella
  • Some important structures of the knee:
    • Synovium – a thin lining providing fluid to lubricate the cartilage and minimize friction
    • Articular cartilage – Slipper substance lining the back of the patella, ends of the tibia and the femur
    • Ligaments – Two collateral and two cruciate ligaments in either side of the knee clasp the bones together
    • Meniscus – Act as shock absorbers and located between the tibia and the femur

Recommendations

Orthopaedics India recommends knee arthroscopy in the following cases:

  • You have a painful condition that does not respond to medications or any other non-surgical treatment
  • Physical therapy, rest, injections and, in addition, medications do not help the situation

arthroscopic knee surgery

Meniscus surgery

  • A portion of the meniscus cartilage removed from the knee joint
  • However, symptoms relieved – when the tear is trimmed

Repair of the meniscus

  • Damaged meniscus repair invites surgical procedures to restore normalcy
  • When successful, above all, has a long-term prognosis

ACL reconstruction

  • One of the four major ligaments of the knee – anterior cruciate ligament
  • Functionally provides knee stability
  • Consequently, imperative ACL surgery performed arthroscopically to reconstruct it

Lateral release

  • Knee cap dislocated from the groove may cause pain while bending the joint
  • Hence, the ligaments loosen with lateral release to pull the knee cap out of the groove

Plica excision

  • Knee compartment dividers lost over a period of time
  • As a result, only some remnant remains known as plica
  • Therefore, to remove the remaining irritable tissue – surgeons perform a plica excision

Microfracture

  • New cartilage growth stimulation to replace the damaged cartilage area
  • To do this, the firm outer bone layer – penetrated with a microfracture procedure
  • Inner layers exposed until the marrow cells
  • Finally, these cells get into the damaged area to fill the gap

Cartilage transfer

  • Also known as OATS – healthy cartilage parts moved to damaged joint areas
  • After that small cartilage plugs are extracted along with some portion of the underlying bone
  • Finally, these are transferred to the damaged area

Performing knee arthroscopy

  • General, regional or local anaesthesia administered to perform the procedure
  • Knee joint accessed through portals at specific locations
  • A camera, after that, inserted through one of the portals to visualise the damaged portion
  • Surgical instruments – inserted through the other portals

Expert surgeons at Orthopaedics India, perform some of the latest surgeries and procedures to alleviate debilitating knee pain.