Overview

  • The hips and knees are the largest joints of the human body. These parts suspend most of the body’s weight while also working in close coordination with each other. Some major tasks performed – such as running, squatting, jumping and others. A cartilage present between the joints is responsible for smooth performance.
  • A total joint replacement is recommended when these joints are affected by rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. There could be other causes to joint pain as well, such as genetic disorders, trauma and developmental issues, to name a few
  • Most importantly, all other conservative treatments such as physical therapy, injections and medications have failed, then hip and knee joint replacement surgeries become imperative

adult Hip and knee replacement

Benefits of joint replacement surgery

  • Patients experiencing terminal pain can get back on their own feet
  • Enhanced participation in Sports and other low-impact activities
  • Overall general health improves
  • Above all, return to daily activities faster than usual with minimally invasive procedures

Results

Successful outcomes of the surgery depend upon the:

  • Health of the patient
  • Severity of pain
  • Previous medical and surgical history
  • Type of surgery opted for
  • Expectations of the patient

The procedure

  • Performed in an outpatient center, total joint replacement surgeries usually take a few hours
  • Damaged bone and cartilage are removed and supplanted with prosthetics made of plastic or metal
  • The prosthesis takes the shape and even moves like a normal joint should

Total hip replacement

Causes of hip pain

Several kinds of arthritis are responsible for hip pain:

Osteoarthritis:

  • An age-related degenerative disease where the hip undergoes wear and tear
  • Generally, affects individuals over 50 years of age
  • The cartilage cushioning deteriorates, and the bones begin rubbing against each other resulting in pain

Rheumatoid Arthritis:

  • Usually invites a synovectomy as the synovial membrane is thickened and inflamed
  • Individuals experience pain and stiffness due to chronic damage and inflammation of the cartilage

Post-traumatic arthritis:

  • Happens after a serious hip fracture or injury
  • Cartilage damage leads to stiffness and pain in the hip

Avascular necrosis:

  • Dislocation, fracture and injury to the hip limits supply of blood to the femoral head
  • Also known as osteonecrosis, avascular necrosis leads to surface bone collapse resulting in arthritis

Hip disease (childhood)

  • Children may have hip problems that could develop into arthritis at a later age
  • This happens especially, when the hip does not grow as normally as it should

Hip replacement Surgery

  • Also known as total knee arthroplasty – involves the removal of cartilage cushioning from the damaged bone
  • Femoral head replacement takes place with a sterile prosthetic, either press fit or cemented
  • Thereafter a ceramic or metal ball is fitted to the stem, replacing the removed femoral head
  • Finally, the new ball and socket also get a new spacer (metal, plastic or ceramic) to facilitate smooth movement

Total knee replacement

  • The main cause of chronic knee pain related to arthritis
  • Most knee pains have three causes, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and post-traumatic arthritis

Surgery

Four basic steps involved in knee replacement surgery:

  • Bone preparation occurs with removal of the cartilage on the femur and tibia along with a little bit bone
  • Metal implants positioned to recreate the joint surface – these may involve metal parts as well
  • After that, the patella or kneecap – resurfaced using a plastic button
  • Finally, a spacer is inserted to provide a smooth gliding surface

Reach out to expert surgeons at Orthopaedics India for more information.